Villa Victoria

Author: Mario Luis Small
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226762937
Format: PDF, Kindle
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For decades now, scholars and politicians alike have argued that the concentration of poverty in city housing projects would produce distrust, alienation, apathy, and social isolation—the disappearance of what sociologists call social capital. But relatively few have examined precisely how such poverty affects social capital or have considered for what reasons living in a poor neighborhood results in such undesirable effects. This book examines a neglected Puerto Rican enclave in Boston to consider the pros and cons of social scientific thinking about the true nature of ghettos in America. Mario Luis Small dismantles the theory that poor urban neighborhoods are inevitably deprived of social capital. He shows that the conditions specified in this theory are vaguely defined and variable among poor communities. According to Small, structural conditions such as unemployment or a failed system of familial relations must be acknowledged as affecting the urban poor, but individual motivations and the importance of timing must be considered as well. Brimming with fresh theoretical insights, Villa Victoria is an elegant work of sociology that will be essential to students of urban poverty.

Unanticipated Gains

Author: Mario Luis Small
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199764093
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Social capital theorists have shown that some people do better than others in part because they enjoy larger, more supportive, or otherwise more useful networks. But why do some people have better networks than others? Unanticipated Gains argues that the practice and structure of the churches, colleges, firms, gyms, childcare centers, and schools in which people happen to participate routinely matter more than their deliberate "networking." Exploring the experiences of New York City mothers whose children were enrolled in childcare centers, this book examines why a great deal of these mothers, after enrolling their children, dramatically expanded both the size and usefulness of their personal networks. Whether, how, and how much the mother's networks were altered--and how useful these networks were--depended on the apparently trivial, but remarkably consequential, practices and regulations of the centers. The structure of parent-teacher organizations, the frequency of fieldtrips, and the rules regarding drop-off and pick-up times all affected the mothers' networks. Relying on scores of in-depth interviews with mothers, quantitative data on both mothers and centers, and detailed case studies of other routine organizations, Small shows that how much people gain from their connections depends substantially on institutional conditions they often do not control, and through everyday processes they may not even be aware of. Emphasizing not the connections that people make, but the context in which they are made, Unanticipated Gains presents a major new perspective on social capital and on the mechanisms producing social inequality.

Cracks in the Pavement

Author: Martin Sanchez-Jankowski
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520256446
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Neighborhoods have been central to American sociology since its inception, yet we have understood little about how the institutions in urban communities evolve, disappear, or persist over time. Instead, as of late, many scholars have treated neighborhoods as collections of individuals and families, ignoring the institutional ecology. Understanding the dynamic role of local institutions is critical not only to sociological scholarship but also to important public policy debates about urban poverty. Martín Sánchez-Jankowski offers the reader an important, comprehensive look at how local institutions ranging from barbershops to street gangs to public housing both reflect and shape the culture and daily rhythms of the residents who live with them. His ecological perspective offers an important missing link in debates about 'neighborhood effects' and should be read by anyone interested in understanding urban poverty."—Dalton Conley, author of Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America "In his famous and moving preface to Les Miserables, Victor Hugo warns us that as long as there is poverty, such tales will be told. But stories are not often told about the resurgence of poor communities—their struggles to mobilize and change their condition. But this book does just that—filling in the rest of the picture; and not of individual Horatio Algers, but with textured and critical analysis of the barriers these communities face and the pathways they take to achieve social change."—Troy Duster, New York University

Leben in benachteiligten Wohngebieten

Author: Jürgen Friedrichs
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663106101
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In diesem Buch werden die Einflüsse untersucht, die das Leben in einem Wohnviertel mit einem hohen Anteil von Sozialhilfeempfängern auf die Bewohner hat.

Someone To Talk To

Author: Mario Luis Small
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190661437
Format: PDF, Docs
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When people are facing difficulties, they often feel the need for a confidant-a person to vent to or a sympathetic ear with whom to talk things through. How do they decide on whom to rely? In theory, the answer seems obvious: if the matter is personal, they will turn to a spouse, a family member, or someone close. In practice, what people actually do often belies these expectations. In Someone To Talk To, Mario Luis Small follows a group of graduate students as they cope with stress, overwork, self-doubt, failure, relationships, children, health care, and poverty. He unravels how they decide whom to turn to for support. And he then confirms his findings based on representative national data on adult Americans. Small shows that rather than consistently relying on their "strong ties," Americans often take pains to avoid close friends and family, as these relationships are both complex and fraught with expectations. In contrast, they often confide in "weak ties," as the need for understanding or empathy trumps their fear of misplaced trust. In fact, people may find themselves confiding in acquaintances and even strangers unexpectedly, without having reflected on the consequences. Someone To Talk To reveals the often counter-intuitive nature of social support, helping us understand when people will keep depression secret from their close ones, why people may avoid reporting sexual assault, how people may decide whom to come out to, and why even competitors can be among a person's best confidants. Amid a growing wave of big data and large-scale network analysis, Small returns to the basic questions of whom we connect with, how, and why, upending decades of conventional wisdom on how we should think about and analyze social networks.

The Cultural Matrix

Author: Orlando Patterson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674967305
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Cultural Matrix seeks to unravel an American paradox: the socioeconomic crisis and social isolation of disadvantaged black youth, on the one hand, and their extraordinary integration and prominence in popular culture on the other. This interdisciplinary work explains how a complex matrix of cultures influences black youth.

Tod und Leben gro er amerikanischer St dte

Author: Jane Jacobs
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3035602123
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.

Robust action and the Rise of the Medici 1400 1434

Author: Tobias Luchsinger
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3638872459
Format: PDF
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2007 im Fachbereich Soziologie - Methodologie und Methoden, Note: 1,0, Universitat Konstanz (Fachbereich: Soziologie), Veranstaltung: Netzwerkanalyse, 5 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit dem 1993 im American Journal of Sociology erschienenen Aufsatz von John Padgett Robust Action and the rise of the Medici 1400-1434." Die Relevanz dieses Artikels fur das Thema der Netzwerkanalyse ergibt sich schon aus dem Titel des Papers, welcher frei ubersetzt stabile Beziehungen" lauten konnte. Padgett, der an der University of Chicago eine Professur fur Politikwissenschaften inne hat, ist ausserdem auswartiger Professor am Santa Fe Institute, wo er sich sich seit 15 Jahren mit dem Thema: Innovation in Markets - Co-Evolution of State and Market in Renaissance Florence" beschaftigt. In diesen Rahmen ist auch der hier zu behandelnde Aufsatz einzuordnden. Padgett verfolgt mit der Arbeit die Absicht, seine These zu belegen, dass die Medici im Florenz zur Zeit des Ubergangs von Spatmittelalter zur Fruhrenaissance nicht, wie bisher von Geschichtswissenschaftlern vermutet, ihre immense Macht und Bedeutung erlangten, indem sie die eigene Differenz zum bestehenden System der Oligarchen ausbauten und aus ihren unterschiedlichen sozialen Attributen Kapital schlugen, sondern dass sie den Oligarchen auf struktureller Ebene glichen. Sie mussten sich also vielmehr auf einer anderen Ebene von den bisherigen elitaren Strukturen unterscheiden. Wie wir sehen werden, wird diese Ebene durch den Terminus robust action" umrissen. Zum einfacheren Verstandnis wollen wir uns in der Unterteilung dieser Arbeit an die Vorlage halten. Nach einer kurzen Definition des Problems und der verwendeten Begriffe in diesem spezifischen Kontext, widmen wir uns Padgetts Untersuchungen der Sozialstruktur anhand seiner drei verschiedenen Modelle. Diese sind im Einzelnen die Netzwerkanalyse zur Untersuchung der Attributverteilung unt