Violence Workers

Author: Prof. Martha K. Huggins
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520928916
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Of the twenty-three Brazilian policemen interviewed in depth for this landmark study, fourteen were direct perpetrators of torture and murder during the three decades that included the 1964-1985 military regime. These "violence workers" and the other group of "atrocity facilitators" who had not, or claimed they had not, participated directly in the violence, help answer questions that haunt today's world: Why and how are ordinary men transformed into state torturers and murderers? How do atrocity perpetrators explain and justify their violence? What is the impact of their murderous deeds—on them, on their victims, and on society? What memories of their atrocities do they admit and which become public history?

Rethinking Serial Murder Spree Killing and Atrocities

Author: Robert Shanafelt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317564685
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Multiple killings by serial or spree killers and the mass violence seen in war crimes and other atrocities have typically been understood as discrete category types, which can foster the view that there are fundamentally different kinds of human beings, including "deviants" who are born evil and innately given to sadism or a callous lack of empathy. In contrast, this book considers the violence of these "deviants" in terms of larger questions about human violence. Therefore, in addition to describing the life histories of a sample of individual serial and spree murderers, the book includes analysis of macro-level phenomena such as genocide, mass rape and killing, and torture occurring under conditions of war, state authorization, or political upheaval. The chief claim of the book is that, given the "right" combination of factors occurring at different levels of analysis, virtually anyone can emerge as a killer or perpetrator of atrocities. While it is crucial to understand individual killers in terms of the details of their biographies, it is equally crucial to understand political atrocities in terms of the details of their histories; and to see that persons and groups are always the product of complexly interacting assemblage processes.

Effective Crime Reduction Strategies

Author: James F. Albrecht
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420078402
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The International Police Executive Symposium (IPES, www.ipes.info) coordinates annual international conferences to evaluate critical issues in policing and recommend practical solutions to law enforcement executives deployed across the globe. Drawn from the 2005 proceedings hosted by the Czech Republic in Prague, Effective Crime Reduction Strategies: International Perspectives contains contributions from the renowned criminal justice and law enforcement professionals who gathered at this elite annual meeting. Dedicated to continued reduction in crime through local and global response, these international experts share effective crime-fighting principles and tried and proven best practices. Thoroughly revised and updated since the initial proceedings, the reports in this volume are divided into six sections which explore a host of essential topics: Critical Issues in European Law Enforcement: Highlights efforts in Hungary, Austria, and Norway to revise policies and organizational structures to meet the demands of developing events and political pressures Contemporary Concerns: Policing in the United States and Canada: Analyzes the impact of international terrorism and transnational crime on police work Paradigm Shifts: Policing as Democracy Evolves: Evaluates the success of democratic reforms in South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Nigeria, and Cameroon Revising Traditional Law Enforcement in Asia to Meet Contemporary Demands: Describes how counterterrorism, cultural ideology, and transnational criminal influence affects the traditional nature of policing in New Zealand, Turkey, Indonesia, and Thailand The Positive Influence of Unionization on Police Professionalism: Addresses the impact of police associations on management decision-making and policy development in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa Significant Issues Facing Twenty-First Century Law Enforcement: Focuses on counterterrorism, border and transnational criminality, the measurement of police effectiveness, and the investigation of juvenile crime Supplemented with select papers considered for the official journal of the IPES, this volume represents a thoroughly comparative approach to the challenges police executives face in the 21st century. Exploring a wide range of issues impacting how law enforcement professionals fight crime, experts from virtually all regions of the globe engage in discourse that is destined to shape future policing worldwide.

The Psychological Origins of Institutionalized Torture

Author: Mika Haritos-Fatouros
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135646716
Format: PDF
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Original research, including interviews with former Greek torturers, is supplemented by discussion of former studies, military records and other sources, to provide disturbing but valuable insights into the psychology of torture. The book describes parallel situations such as the rites of passage in pre-industrial societies and cults, elite Corps military training and college hazing, eventually concluding that the torturer is not born, but made. Of essential interest to academics and students interested in social psychology and related disciplines, this book will also be extremely valuable to policy-makers, professionals working in government, and all those interested in securing and promoting human rights.

Understanding Torture

Author: J. Jeremy Wisnewski
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 074868672X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Understanding Torture surveys the massive literature surrounding torture, arguing that, once properly understood, there can be no defense of torture in any circumstances.

Screening Torture

Author: Michael Flynn
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231526970
Format: PDF
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Before 9/11, films addressing torture outside of the horror/slasher genre depicted the practice in a variety of forms. In most cases, torture was cast as the act of a desperate and depraved individual, and the viewer was more likely to identify with the victim rather than the torturer. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, scenes of brutality and torture in mainstream comedies, dramatic narratives, and action films appear for little other reason than to titillate and delight. In these films, torture is devoid of any redeeming qualities, represented as an exercise in brutal senselessness carried out by authoritarian regimes and institutions. This volume follows the shift in the representation of torture over the past decade, specifically in documentary, action, and political films. It traces and compares the development of this trend in films from the United States, Europe, China, Latin America, South Africa, and the Middle East. Featuring essays by sociologists, psychologists, historians, journalists, and specialists in film and cultural studies, the collection approaches the representation of torture in film and television from multiple angles and disciplines, connecting its aesthetics and practices to the dynamic of state terror and political domination.

Mainstreaming Torture

Author: Rebecca Gordon
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199381984
Format: PDF, Docs
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The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 reopened what many people in America had long assumed was a settled ethical question: Is torture ever morally permissible? Within days, some began to suggest that, in these new circumstances, the new answer was "yes." Rebecca Gordon argues that September 11 did not, as some have said, "change everything," and that institutionalized state torture remains as wrong today as it was on the day before those terrible attacks. Furthermore, U.S. practices during the "war on terror" are rooted in a history that began long before September 11, a history that includes both support for torture regimes abroad and the use of torture in American jails and prisons. Gordon argues that the most common ethical approaches to torture-utilitarianism and deontology (ethics based on adherence to duty)-do not provide sufficient theoretical purchase on the problem. Both approaches treat torture as a series of isolated actions that arise in moments of extremity, rather than as an ongoing, historically and socially embedded practice. She advocates instead a virtue ethics approach, based in part on the work of Alasdair MacIntyre. Such an approach better illumines torture's ethical dimensions, taking into account the implications of torture for human virtue and flourishing. An examination of torture's effect on the four cardinal virtues-courage, temperance, justice, and prudence (or practical reason)-suggests specific ways in which each of these are deformed in a society that countenances torture. Mainstreaming Torture concludes with the observation that if the United States is to come to terms with its involvement in institutionalized state torture, there must be a full and official accounting of what has been done, and those responsible at the highest levels must be held accountable.

Caring Democracy

Author: Joan C. Tronto
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814782779
Format: PDF, ePub
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Americans now face a caring deficit: there are simply too many demands on people’s time for us to care adequately for our children, elderly people, and ourselves.At the same time, political involvement in the United States is at an all-time low, and although political life should help us to care better, people see caring as unsupported by public life and deem the concerns of politics as remote from their lives. Caring Democracy argues that we need to rethink American democracy, as well as our fundamental values and commitments, from a caring perspective. The idea that production and economic life are the most important political and human concerns ignores the reality that caring, for ourselves and others, should be the highest value that shapes how we view the economy, politics, and institutions such as schools and the family. Care is at the center of our human lives, but Tronto argues it is currently too far removed from the concerns of politics. Caring Democracy traces the reasons for this disconnection and argues for the need to make care, not economics, the central concern of democratic political life. Joan C. Tronto is a Professor in the Political Science Department at the University of Minnesota. She is the author of Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care (Routledge).

Social Theory of Fear

Author: G. Skoll
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230112633
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites promote fear of crime and terrorism to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion. This ebook is participating in an experiment and is available Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) licence. Users are free to disseminate and reuse the ebook. The licence does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. To view a copy of this license visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0