War by Contract

Author: Francesco Francioni
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019960455X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The conduct of armed conflict is increasingly being outsourced to private military and security companies, whose legal position remains unclear. This book identifies and analyses the human rights and humanitarian law framework applicable to these companies, examining how they can be held to account and how victims can obtain remedies.

Law s Impunity

Author: Hin-Yan Liu
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782259635
Format: PDF, Mobi
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When faced with those who act with impunity, we seek the protection of law. We rely upon the legal system for justice, from international human rights law that establishes common standards of protection, to international criminal law that spearheads efforts to end impunity for the most heinous atrocities. While legal processes are perceived to combat impunity, and despite the ready availability of the law, accountability often remains elusive. What if the law itself enables impunity? Law's Impunity asks this question in the context of the modern Private Military Company (PMC), examining the relationship between law and the concepts of responsibility and impunity. This book proposes that ordinary legal processes do not neutralise, but rather legalise impunity. This radical idea is applied to the abysmal record of human rights violations perpetrated by the modern PMC and the shocking absence of accountability. This book demonstrates how the law organises, rather than overcomes, impunity by detailing how the modern PMC exploits ordinary legal processes to systematically exclude itself from legal responsibility. Thus, Law's Impunity offers an alternative to conventional thinking about the law, providing an innovative approach to assess and refine the rigour of legal processes in the ongoing quest to end impunity.

Multilevel Regulation of Military and Security Contractors

Author: Christine Bakker
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318991
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The outsourcing of military and security services is the object of intense legal debate. States employ private military and security companies (PMSCs) to perform functions previously exercised by regular armed forces, and increasingly international organisations, NGOs and business corporations do the same to provide security, particularly in crisis situations. Much of the public attention on PMSCs has been in response to incidents in which PMSC employees have been accused of violating international humanitarian law. Therefore initiatives have been launched to introduce uniform international standards amidst what is currently very uneven national regulation. This book analyses and discusses the interplay between international, European, and domestic regulatory measures in the field of PMSCs. It presents a comprehensive assessment of the existing domestic legislation in EU Member States and relevant Third States, and identifies implications for future international regulation. The book also addresses the crucial questions whether and how the EU can potentially play a more active future role in the regulation of PMSCs to ensure compliance with human rights and international humanitarian law.

Defending Human Rights and Democracy in the Era of Globalization

Author: Akrivopoulou, Christina
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522507248
Format: PDF, ePub
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The era of technology in which we reside has ushered in a more globalized and connected world. While many benefits are gained from this connectivity, possible disadvantages to issues of human rights are developed as well. Defending Human Rights and Democracy in the Era of Globalization is a pivotal resource for the latest research on the effects of a globalized society regarding issues relating to social ethics and civil rights. Highlighting relevant concepts on political autonomy, migration, and asylum, this book is ideally designed for academicians, professionals, practitioners, and upper-level students interested in the ongoing concerns of human rights.

War Conflict and Human Rights

Author: Chandra Lekha Sriram
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135019460
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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War, Conflict and Human Rights is an innovative, interdisciplinary textbook combining aspects of law, politics, and conflict analysis to examine the relationship between human rights and armed conflict. This second edition has been revised and updated, making use of both theoretical and practical approaches. Over the course of the book, the authors: examine the tensions and complementarities between protection of human rights and resolution of conflict, including the competing political demands and the challenges posed by internal armed conflict; analyse the different obligations and legal regimes applicable to state and non-state actors, including non-state armed groups, corporations and private military and security companies; explore the scope and effects of human rights violations in contemporary armed conflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the former Yugoslavia, and implications for the "Arab Spring"; assess the legal and institutional accountability mechanisms developed in the wake of armed conflict to punish violations of human rights law, and international humanitarian law such as the ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and the International Criminal Court; discuss continuing and emergent global trends and challenges in the fields of human rights and conflict analysis. This volume will be essential reading for students of war and conflict studies, human rights, and international humanitarian law, and highly recommended for students of conflict resolution, peacebuilding, international security and international relations, generally.

Weapons under International Human Rights Law

Author: Stuart Casey-Maslen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107729297
Format: PDF
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International human rights law offers an overarching international legal framework to help determine the legality of the use of any weapon, as well as its lawful supply. It governs acts of States and non-State actors alike. In doing so, human rights law embraces international humanitarian law regulation of the use of weapons in armed conflict and disarmament law, as well as international criminal justice standards. In situations of law enforcement (such as counterpiracy, prisons, ordinary policing, riot control, and many peace operations), human rights law is the primary legal frame of reference above domestic criminal law. This important and timely book draws on all aspects of international weapons law and proposes a new view on international law governing weapons. Also included is a specific discussion on armed drones and cyberattacks, two highly topical issues in international law and international relations.

The EU Common Security and Defence Policy

Author: Panos Koutrakos
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191655902
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Presenting the first analytical overview of the legal foundations of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), this book provides a detailed examination of the law and practice of the EU's security policy. The European Union's security and defence policy has long been the focus of political scientists and international relations experts. However, it has more recently become of increasing relevance to lawyers too. Since the early 2000s, the EU has carried out more than two dozen security and defence missions in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The EU institutions are keen to stress the security dimension of other external policies also, such as development cooperation, and the Lisbon Treaty introduces a more detailed set of rules and procedures which govern the CSDP. This book provides a legal analysis of the Union's CSDP by examining the nexus of its substantive, institutional, and economic dimensions. Taking as its starting point the historical development of security and defence in the context of European integration, it outlines the legal framework created by the rules and procedures introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon. It examines the military operations and civilian missions undertaken by the Union, and looks at the policy context within which they are carried out. It analyses the international agreements concluded in this field and explores the links between the CSDP and other external policies of the Union.

Private Security Contractors and New Wars

Author: Kateri Carmola
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135153280
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book addresses the ambiguities of the growing use of private security contractors and provides guidance as to how our expectations about regulating this expanding ‘service’ industry will have to be adjusted.

Private Military and Security Companies

Author: Erika Calazans
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443893951
Format: PDF
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This book’s primary concern is the application of International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law in addressing the business conduct of Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) during armed conflicts, as well as state responsibility for human rights violations and current attempts at international regulation. The book discusses four interconnected themes. First, it differentiates private contractors from mercenaries, presenting an historical overview of private violence. Second, it situates PMSCs’ employees under the legal status of civilian or combatant in accordance with the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions of 1949. It then investigates the existing law on state responsibility and what sort of responsibility companies and their employees can face. Finally, the book explores current developments on regulation within the industry, on national, regional and international levels. These themes are connected by the argument that, in order to find gaps in the existing laws, it is necessary to establish what they are, what law is applicable and what further developments are needed.

Private Military and Security Companies

Author: Thomas Jäger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3531903136
Format: PDF, ePub
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Private Sicherheits- und Militärunternehmen erleben seit den 1990er Jahren einen außerordentlichen Boom und sind derzeit eines der spannendsten Phänomene in den internationalen Beziehungen. Die Palette der von ihnen angebotenen Dienstleistungen ist groß. Sie reichen von logistischer Unterstützung über Aufklärung bis hin zu Kampfeinsätzen. Zu ihren Kunden zählen Regierungen, Wirtschaftsunternehmen, internationale Organisationen, NGOs, humanitäre Organisationen sowie Privatpersonen. Gegenwärtig lässt sich an den Auseinandersetzungen im Irak sowohl die Aktualität wie auch die Brisanz ihres Einsatzes illustrieren, gibt es doch Anzeichen dafür, dass Beschäftigte solcher Unternehmen u.a. in die Folterung von Gefangenen verwickelt sind. Die Beiträge des Sammelbandes aus der Feder nationaler wie internationaler Expertinnen und Experten beschreiben und analysieren verschiedene Typen von privaten Sicherheits- und Militärunternehmens, ihre Dienstleistungen und die Umstände, die ihren Boom befördert haben. Sie diskutieren die Vor- wie auch die Nachteile ihres Einsatzes und beschreiben Instrumente, die die Tätigkeit dieser Unternehmen stärker reglementieren und kontrollieren könnten.