War Guilt and World Politics After World War II

Author: Thomas U. Berger
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110702160X
Format: PDF
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This book describes how the states in post-1945 Austria, Germany, and Japan have tried to deal with the legacy of the Second World War and how their policies have affected their relations with other countries in the region. It focuses on the intersection of national interest and popular emotions and argues that it is possible to reconcile over historical issues, but that to do so can exact a considerable political cost.

Guilt Suffering and Memory

Author: Gilad Margalit
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253353769
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Germany's changing historical memory of World War II and its aftermath, as reflected in the official and public remembrance of the German war dead, exposes an unresolved tension between a discourse of guilt and a discourse of national suffering and victimization. In Germany, under the auspices of the Allied occupation, remembrance honored the victims of the Nazis and those who had fought against the regime. After the partition of Germany, a new culture emerged, memorializing the civilian dead and fallen German soldiers. Despite the fierce ideological rivalry between East and West Germany, however, certain similarities existed. The political leaderships who shaped these cultures ceased to confront their citizens with the question of guilt and instead depicted the German people as victims. In Guilt, Suffering, and Memory -- whose Israeli edition was awarded the Jacob Bahat Prize for best original book -- Gilad Margalit discusses the official remembrance ceremonies for the German war dead, the memorials erected to commemorate them, the public discussions of these disparate cultures, and their treatment in postwar German literature and film.

The Politics of Retribution in Europe

Author: István Deák
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400832055
Format: PDF, ePub
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The presentation of Europe's immediate historical past has quite dramatically changed. Conventional depictions of occupation and collaboration in World War II, of wartime resistance and post-war renewal, provided the familiar backdrop against which the chronicle of post-war Europe has mostly been told. Within these often ritualistic presentations, it was possible to conceal the fact that not only were the majority of people in Hitler's Europe not resistance fighters but millions actively co-operated with and many millions more rather easily accommodated to Nazi rule. Moreover, after the war, those who judged former collaborators were sometimes themselves former collaborators. Many people became innocent victims of retribution, while others--among them notorious war criminals--escaped punishment. Nonetheless, the process of retribution was not useless but rather a historically unique effort to purify the continent of the many sins Europeans had committed. This book sheds light on the collective amnesia that overtook European governments and peoples regarding their own responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity--an amnesia that has only recently begun to dissipate as a result of often painful searching across the continent. In inspiring essays, a group of internationally renowned scholars unravels the moral and political choices facing European governments in the war's aftermath: how to punish the guilty, how to decide who was guilty of what, how to convert often unspeakable and conflicted war experiences and memories into serviceable, even uplifting accounts of national history. In short, these scholars explore how the drama of the immediate past was (and was not) successfully "overcome." Through their comparative and transnational emphasis, they also illuminate the division between eastern and western Europe, locating its origins both in the war and in post-war domestic and international affairs. Here, as in their discussion of collaborators' trials, the authors lay bare the roots of the many unresolved and painful memories clouding present-day Europe. Contributors are Brad Abrams, Martin Conway, Sarah Farmer, Luc Huyse, László Karsai, Mark Mazower, and Peter Romijn, as well as the editors. Taken separately, their essays are significant contributions to the contemporary history of several European countries. Taken together, they represent an original and pathbreaking account of a formative moment in the shaping of Europe at the dawn of a new millennium.

Savage Continent

Author: Keith Lowe
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 067091746X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Second World War left Europe in chaos. Landscapes had been ravaged, entire cities razed and more than 35 million people killed. Across most of the continent, the institutions that we now take for granted - such as the police, the media, transport,local and national government - were either entirely absent or hopelessly compromised. Crime rates soared, economies collapsed, and the European population hovered on the brink of starvation. In this groundbreaking study of the years that followed the war, Keith Lowe describes a continent still racked by violence, where large sections of the population had yet to accept that the war was over. He outlines the warped morality and the insatiable urge for vengeance that were the legacy of the conflict. He describes the ethnic cleansing and civil wars that tore apart the lives of ordinary people from the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean, and the establishment of a new world order that finally brought stability to a shattered continent.These were themes, he shows, that existed across the whole of Europe - east and west. Based on original documents, interviews and scholarly literature in eight different languages, Savage Continent is a window on the brief, chaotic period between the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War.It is the first major history of the period in any language.

Soldiers of Memory

Author: Ene Kõresaar
Publisher: Rodopi
ISBN: 9042032448
Format: PDF
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Soldiers of Memory explores the complexities and ambiguities of World War II experience from the Estonian veteransOCO point of view. Since the end of World War II, contesting veteran cultures have developed on the basis of different war experiences and search for recognition in the public arena of history. The book reflects on this process by combining witness accounts with their critical analysis from the aspect of post-Soviet remembrance culture and politics. The first part of the book examines the persistent remembrance of World War II. Eight life stories of Estonian men are presented, revealing different war trajectories: mobilised between 1941 and 1944, the narrators served in the Red Army and its work battalions, fought against the Soviet Union in the Finnish Army, Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe, the German political police force and Wehrmacht, deserted from the Red Army, were held in German and Soviet prison and repatriation camps. The second part of the book offers a critical analysis of the stories from a multidisciplinary point of view: what were the possible life trajectories for an Estonian soldier under Soviet and German occupations in the 1940s? How did the soldiers cope with the extreme conditions of the Soviet rear? How are the veteransOCO memories situated in terms of different memory regimes and what is their position in the post-Soviet Estonian society? What role does ethnic and generational identity play in the formation of veteransOCO war remembrance? How do individuals cope with war trauma and guilt in life stories? Offering a wide range of empirical material and its critical analysis, Soldiers of Memory will be important for military, oral and cultural historians, sociologists, cultural psychologists, and anybody with an interest in the history of World War II, post/communism, and cultural construction of memory in contemporary Eastern European societies."

Walking Since Daybreak

Author: Modris Eksteins
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618082315
Format: PDF, ePub
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Drawing on the personal experiences of members of the his own family, this poignant history of the Baltic nations describes their brief independence after World War I, the devastation of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia during World War II, and their annexation into the Soviet Union. 15,000 first printing.

The Tokyo war crimes trial

Author: Yuma Totani
Publisher: Harvard Univ Council on East Asian
ISBN: 9780674033399
Format: PDF, Docs
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Yuma Totani assesses the historical significance of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) - commonly called the Tokyo trial - established as the eastern counterpart of the Nuremberg trial in the immediate aftermath of World War II.

Reconciling Enemy States in Europe and Asia

Author: Seunghoon Emilia Heo
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 0230295436
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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PART I: INTRODUCTION Exploring Interstate Reconciliations PART II: RECONCILIATION IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS The Subject of Reconciliation Defining Reconciliation An Ideal Type of Interstate Reconciliation Varieties of Interstate Reconciliation PART III: CONCLUSION Embracing the 'Others'.

An Improbable War

Author: Holger Afflerbach
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857453106
Format: PDF
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The First World War has been described as the "primordial catastrophe of the twentieth century." Arguably, Italian Fascism, German National Socialism and Soviet Leninism and Stalinism would not have emerged without the cultural and political shock of World War I. The question why this catastrophe happened therefore preoccupies historians to this day. The focus of this volume is not on the consequences, but rather on the connection between the Great War and the long 19th century, the short- and long-term causes of World War I. This approach results in the questioning of many received ideas about the war's causes, especially the notion of "inevitability."

Confronting Memories of World War II

Author: Daniel Chirot
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 9780295993454
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This collection brings together experts from a variety of disciplines and perspectives to explore the often overlooked commonalities between European and Asian handling of memories and reflections about guilt. These commonalities suggest new understandings of the war's legacy and the continuing impact of historical trauma.