Watershed Health Monitoring

Author: Chris Jones
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420010145
Format: PDF, Docs
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Watershed Health Monitoring: Emerging Technologies is a concise reference that defines the concept of watershed health and explains that monitoring the health of watersheds is a critical precursor to adaptive resource management on a watershed basis. The focus of the text is a clear description of an innovative "Closed Loop" model that specifies four key aspects of successful monitoring programs: political linkages and support, sound scientific assessment techniques, a community education and awareness component; and a sustainable cost-recovery framework achieved through partnership. Divided into two sections, the book begins with an introduction that defines watershed health, explains how monitoring fits into watershed planning and management, describes frequent shortfalls of monitoring programs around the world (with an emphasis on North America) and proposes a "Closed Loop" approach that will help ensure successful programs. Subsequent chapters detail each component of the "Closed Loop" model with special emphasis on scientific assessment. The second part features a set of six case studies that describe successful real-world applications of the "Closed Loop" approach to watershed monitoring. Written in an easily understood manner with the practitioner in mind, Watershed Health Monitoring balances the need for a detailed yet concise treatment of the topic of watershed health monitoring. It is the first book to recognize the multidisciplinary nature of successful monitoring programs-programs that go far beyond science.

River Basin Management in the Twenty First Century

Author: Victor Roy Squires
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466579625
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Worldwide development of agriculture and industry creates burgeoning demands on natural resources. Management of the rivers and the surrounding landscape is one of the important tasks for today and for the foreseeable future. Lessons learned from centuries of management (and mismanagement) have been distilled into principles and practices which form the subject matter for this book. It provides both a global perspective and an entrée to the special problems associated with management of transboundary rivers.

Manajemen Daerah Aliran Sungai DAS

Author: Didik Suprayogo
Publisher: Universitas Brawijaya Press
ISBN: 6024324030
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Perubahan iklim bersifat tipikal dari Negara satu dengan lainnya maupun wilayah satu dengan lainnya dalam suatu negara. Seluruh wilayah di Indonesia telah mengalami peningkatan rata-rata suhu tahunan sekitar 0.3°C, penurunan curah hujan sebesar 2% -3%, perubahan pola curah hujan, dan perubahan hujan dimana musim hujan di selatan Indonesia meningkat sementara di bagian utara menurun (Hulme dan Sheard, 1999; Boer and Faqih, 2004). Proyeksi perubahan iklim di Indonesia menunjukkan peningkatan suhu dari 0.2-0.3°C setiap dekade, peningkatan curah hujan tahunan di seluruh pulau utama kecuali di bagian selatan yang diproyeksikan menurun sebesar 15%, perubahan curah hujan musiman dan keterlambatan angin muson tahunan yang menyebabkan peningkatan hujan pada bulan April – Juni dan penurunan curah hujan setelahnya pada musim kering sampai dengan 75% pada bulan Juli – Sepetember (Hulme and Sheard, 1999; Boer and Faqih, 2004; Naylor et al., 2007). Hasil review Case et al., (2007) menyatakan bahwa curah hujan tahunan di beberapa bagian di Indonesia mengalami penurunan dan diproyeksikan akan terus menurun selama masa musim kemarau dan dapat menyebabkan kekeringan berkepanjangan, dan di wilayah lain di Indonesia, diproyeksikan bahwa curah hujan akan meningkat namun kejadian hujannya semakin sedikit sehingga dapat menyebabkan intensitas hujan yang tinggi dan selanjutnya dapat menyebabkan banjir. Indonesia menurut hasil review Case et al., (2007) sangat dipengaruhi oleh siklus ENSO (mis., El Niño biasanya mengakibatkan musim kering yang meluas dan La Niña mengakibatkan banjir), yang dapat memperburuk pola pengeringan dan/atau banjir. Kekeringan yang disebabkan El Niño pada tahun 1997-1998 menyebabkan kegagalan panen, kelangkaan air, dan kebakaran hutan di sebagian wilayah Indonesia dan hasil proyeksi model iklim kajian ini semakin kuat, peristiwa El Niño akan lebih sering terjadi (Tsonis et al., 2005 dan Santoso dan Forner, 2006). Sintesis Laporan Penilaian Kelima (AR5) oleh Panel Internasional untuk Perubahan Iklim (IPCC), Indonesia termasuk Negara yang dianggap rentan terhadap perubahan iklim. Penduduk di Indonesia sering menderita akibat iklim ekstrem seperti El Nino dan La Nina. Pada tahun-tahun ElNino, kita menghadapi risiko kekeringan, dan pada tahun-tahun La Nina kita terkena risiko hujan lebat dan banjir. Dampak terhadap sumber daya air diperkirakan bahwa rasio kabupaten /kotamadya tanpa persediaan air yang cukup akan meningkat dari saat ini 14% menjadi 19% pada tahun 2025 dan 31% pada tahun 2050 (Kementrian Lingkungan Jepang, 2014).

Swimming Upstream

Author: Paul A. Sabatier
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262264754
Format: PDF
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In recent years, water resource management in the United States has begun a shift away from top-down, government agency-directed decision processes toward a collaborative approach of negotiation and problem solving. Rather than focusing on specific pollution sources or specific areas within a watershed, this new process considers the watershed as a whole, seeking solutions to an interrelated set of social, economic, and environmental problems. Decision making involves face-to-face negotiations among a variety of stakeholders, including federal, state, and local agencies, landowners, environmentalists, industries, and researchers.Swimming Upstream analyzes the collaborative approach by providing a historical overview of watershed management in the United States and a normative and empirical conceptual framework for understanding and evaluating the process. The bulk of the book looks at a variety of collaborative watershed planning projects across the country. It first examines the applications of relatively short-term collaborative strategies in Oklahoma and Texas, exploring issues of trust and legitimacy. It then analyzes factors affecting the success of relatively long-term collaborative partnerships in the National Estuary Program and in 76 watersheds in Washington and California. Bringing analytical rigor to a field that has been dominated by practitioners' descriptive accounts, Swimming Upstream makes a vital contribution to public policy, public administration, and environmental management.