When Fathers Ruled

Author: Steven Ozment
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674041721
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Here is a lively study of marriage and the family during the Reformation, primarily in Gemany and Switzerland, that dispels the commonly held notion of fathers as tyrannical and families as loveless. Did husbands and wives love one another in Reformation Europe? Did the home and family life matter to most people? In this wide-ranging work, Steven Ozment has gathered the answers of contemporaries to these questions. His subject is the patriarchal family in Germany and Switzerland, primarily among Protestants. But unlike modern scholars from Philippe Arics to Lawrence Stone, Ozment finds the fathers of early modern Europe sympathetic and even admirable. They were not domineering or loveless men, nor were their homes the training ground for passive citizenry in an age of political absolutism. From prenatal care to graveside grief, they expressed deep love for their wives and children. Rather than a place where women and children were bullied by male chauvinists, the Protestant home was the center of a domestic reform movement against Renaissance antifeminism and was an attempt to resolve the crises of family life. Demanding proper marriages for all women, Martin Luther and his followers suppressed convents and cloisters as the chief institutions of womankind's sexual repression, cultural deprivation, and male clerical domination. Consent, companionship, and mutual respect became the watchwords of marriage. And because they did, genuine divorce and remarriage became possible among Christians for the first time. This graceful book restores humanity to the Reformation family and to family history.

Pastors and Parishioners in W rttemberg During the Late Reformation 1581 1621

Author: Bruce Tolley
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804716819
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In recent decades, research on the impact of the Reformation on popular religious life in Germany has sparked a controversy challenging the traditional assumption that Protestantism had a deep and lasting effect on all levels of sixteenth-century life. This study uses previously neglected archival sources, the records of the Wurttemberg church visitations over a forty-year period, to investigate various areas of church life touched on by the debate. The author examines the social and cultural nature of the pastorate as a professional group, areas of conflict and agreement between representatives of the official church and the parishioners, the nature of the church visitations, and the standards and expectations of the visitors concerning lay religious life and discipline. Church visitations were conducted to inform higher ecclesiastical authorities about the conditions of religious life in individual parishes. The visitors interviewed and reported on members of the community from all walks of life: pastor, mayor, schoolmaster, folk-healer, shepherd, and, in some cases, village drunk. The visitations were used to discipline the clergy and laity through exhortations, warnings, fines, and, in rare cases, imprisonment. The author shows that the system of penalties, sanctions, and persuasions had only mixed success in inhibiting un-Christian behavior. When the church's interest in discipline coincided with the interest of village groups in restraining profligacy or laxity, the church had greater success. The Wurttemberg records reveal that parishioners showed only moderate zeal in attending the principal Sunday morning service and that weekday and Sunday afternoon services were poorly attended. For communion, many of the laity seem to have felt that an annual participation at Easter services fulfilled their religious obligation. Young people and single adults appeared most often negligent in their attendance at church, sometimes because of the demands of seasonal agriculture, but more often because of general indifference to the church or active resistance to the church's efforts to discipline such festive pastimes as dancing and berry picking. In the process of investigating the relationship between parishioners and the state church, the author presents information on the clergy's social and geographic origins, education and culture, and economic conditions. He analyzes the attitudes and behavior surrounding popular religious practices and evaluates the church's attempts to reform and regulate family life and social mores.

Courtship Illegitimacy and Marriage in Early Modern England

Author: Richard Adair
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719042522
Format: PDF
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A study of illegitimacy in England between 1538 and 1754, this text assembles data from over 500 parishes across the country, providing a detailed reconstruction of the lives and marital histories of the women and men who had children, both inside and outside marriage. A regional perspective is explored, providing evidence of a clear cleavage in the texture of courtship in England during this period. The survey shows the concept of national demographic data, often the basis of past research, to be deeply flawed. Offering a fresh look at contemporary attitudes towards marriage, the research is synthesized with original material from the ecclesiastical courts, in order to illustrate hitherto unsuspected regional contrasts in courtship behaviour in this period.

Landscape and Community in England

Author: Alan Everitt
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0826420419
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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England is an old country, more deeply conditioned by its past than perhaps any of us realise. It is also a varied country, particularly in relation to its size; this fact, too, has left its imprint on our past. Antiquity and diversity are the hallmarks of English landscape and society, with evidences of the logic of history evident everywhere we look. In this collection of essays Alan Everitt looks at the interconnections between landscape and community, demonstrating how places, localities, counties and regions all shed light on English society and history as a whole. Covering topics such as regional evolution, lost towns of England, the agrarian landscape in Kent, the English urban inn, and dynasty and community since the 17th century, Everitt's essays cpature the wealth of experience and local idiosyncracies that constitute England's rich history and culture.

Cultural History in Europe

Author: Jörg Rogge
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839417244
Format: PDF, Kindle
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What is the current state of discussion in Cultural History? Which European institutions engage exclusively in Cultural History and which topics do they address? And how will Cultural History develop in the future? These and other questions are raised by European scholars in the discussion of Institutions, Themes and Perspectives of Cultural History in this volume. It provides a profound overview of contemporary developments in Scandinavia, Finland, Great Britain, Latvia, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Italy and Spain.

The Modernization of Fatherhood

Author: Ralph LaRossa
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226469041
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The period between World War I and World War II was an important time in the history of gender relations, and of American fatherhood. Revealing the surprising extent to which some of yesterday's fathers were involved with their children, The Modernization of Fatherhood recounts how fatherhood was reshaped during the Machine Age into the configuration we know today. LaRossa explains that during the interwar period the image of the father as economic provider, pal, and male role model, all in one, became institutionalized. Using personal letters and popular magazine and newspaper sources, he explores how the social and economic conditions of the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression—a period of technical innovation as well as economic hardship—fused these expectations into a cultural ideal. With chapters on the U.S. Children's Bureau, the fathercraft movement, the magazine industry and the development of Parent's Magazine, and the creation of Father's Day, this book is a major addition to the growing literature on masculinity and fatherhood.

Europe

Author: Peter Rietbergen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317606302
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This third, revised and augmented edition of Peter Rietbergen’s highly acclaimed Europe: A Cultural History provides a major and original contribution to the study of Europe. From ancient Babylonian law codes to Pope Urban’s call to crusade in 1095, and from Michelangelo on Italian art in 1538 to Sting’s songs in the late twentieth century, the expressions of the culture that has developed in Europe are diverse and wide-ranging. This exceptional text expertly connects this variety, explaining them to the reader in a thorough and yet highly readable style. Presented chronologically, Europe: A Cultural History examines the many cultural building blocks of Europe, stressing their importance in the formation of the continent’s ever-changing cultural identities. Starting with the beginnings of agricultural society and ending with the mass culture of the early twenty-first century, the book uses literature, art, science, technology and music to examine Europe’s cultural history in terms of continuity and change. Rietbergen looks at how societies developed new ways of surviving, believing, consuming and communicating throughout the period. His book is distinctive in paying particular attention to the ways early Europe has been formed through the impact of a variety of cultures, from Celtic and German to Greek and Roman. The role of Christianity is stressed, but as a contested variable, as are the influences from, for example, Asia in the early modern period and from American culture and Islamic immigrants in more recent times. Since anxieties over Europe's future mount, this third edition text has been thoroughly revised for the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Moreover, it now also includes a 'dossier' of some seventeen essay-like vignettes that highlight cultural phenomena said to be characteristic of Europe: social solidarity, capitalism, democracy and so forth. With a wide selection of illustrations, maps, excerpts of sources and even lyrics from contemporary songs to support the arguments, this book both serves the general reader as well as students of historical and cultural studies.

Luther on Women

Author: Susan C. Karant-Nunn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521658843
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Martin Luther contributed extensively to the sixteenth century 'debate about women' with his writings on women and related subjects such as marriage, the family and sexuality. In this 2003 volume, Merry Wiesner-Hanks and Susan Karant-Nunn bring together a vast selection of these works, translating many into English for the first time. They include sermons, lectures, pamphlets, polemic writings, letters and some informal 'table talk' recorded by his followers. The book is arranged into chapters on Biblical women, marriage, sexuality, childbirth and witchcraft, as well as on Luther's relations with his wife and other contemporary women. The editors, both internationally-known scholars on Reformation and women, provide a general introduction to each chapter, and Luther's own colourful words fuel both sides of the debate about whether the Protestant Reformation was beneficial or detrimental to women. This collection will make a wide range of Luther's works accessible to English-speaking scholars, students and general readers.

Family Life in the Age of Shakespeare

Author: Bruce Wilson Young
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313342394
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Overviews family life in Shakespeare's world and works and in productions of his plays.