When Fathers Ruled

Author: Steven Ozment
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674041721
Format: PDF
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Here is a lively study of marriage and the family during the Reformation, primarily in Gemany and Switzerland, that dispels the commonly held notion of fathers as tyrannical and families as loveless. Did husbands and wives love one another in Reformation Europe? Did the home and family life matter to most people? In this wide-ranging work, Steven Ozment has gathered the answers of contemporaries to these questions. His subject is the patriarchal family in Germany and Switzerland, primarily among Protestants. But unlike modern scholars from Philippe Arics to Lawrence Stone, Ozment finds the fathers of early modern Europe sympathetic and even admirable. They were not domineering or loveless men, nor were their homes the training ground for passive citizenry in an age of political absolutism. From prenatal care to graveside grief, they expressed deep love for their wives and children. Rather than a place where women and children were bullied by male chauvinists, the Protestant home was the center of a domestic reform movement against Renaissance antifeminism and was an attempt to resolve the crises of family life. Demanding proper marriages for all women, Martin Luther and his followers suppressed convents and cloisters as the chief institutions of womankind's sexual repression, cultural deprivation, and male clerical domination. Consent, companionship, and mutual respect became the watchwords of marriage. And because they did, genuine divorce and remarriage became possible among Christians for the first time. This graceful book restores humanity to the Reformation family and to family history.

Pastors and Parishioners in W rttemberg During the Late Reformation 1581 1621

Author: Bruce Tolley
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804716819
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In recent decades, research on the impact of the Reformation on popular religious life in Germany has sparked a controversy challenging the traditional assumption that Protestantism had a deep and lasting effect on all levels of sixteenth-century life. This study uses previously neglected archival sources, the records of the Wurttemberg church visitations over a forty-year period, to investigate various areas of church life touched on by the debate. The author examines the social and cultural nature of the pastorate as a professional group, areas of conflict and agreement between representatives of the official church and the parishioners, the nature of the church visitations, and the standards and expectations of the visitors concerning lay religious life and discipline. Church visitations were conducted to inform higher ecclesiastical authorities about the conditions of religious life in individual parishes. The visitors interviewed and reported on members of the community from all walks of life: pastor, mayor, schoolmaster, folk-healer, shepherd, and, in some cases, village drunk. The visitations were used to discipline the clergy and laity through exhortations, warnings, fines, and, in rare cases, imprisonment. The author shows that the system of penalties, sanctions, and persuasions had only mixed success in inhibiting un-Christian behavior. When the church's interest in discipline coincided with the interest of village groups in restraining profligacy or laxity, the church had greater success. The Wurttemberg records reveal that parishioners showed only moderate zeal in attending the principal Sunday morning service and that weekday and Sunday afternoon services were poorly attended. For communion, many of the laity seem to have felt that an annual participation at Easter services fulfilled their religious obligation. Young people and single adults appeared most often negligent in their attendance at church, sometimes because of the demands of seasonal agriculture, but more often because of general indifference to the church or active resistance to the church's efforts to discipline such festive pastimes as dancing and berry picking. In the process of investigating the relationship between parishioners and the state church, the author presents information on the clergy's social and geographic origins, education and culture, and economic conditions. He analyzes the attitudes and behavior surrounding popular religious practices and evaluates the church's attempts to reform and regulate family life and social mores.

Courtship Illegitimacy and Marriage in Early Modern England

Author: Richard Adair
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719042522
Format: PDF, Docs
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A study of illegitimacy in England between 1538 and 1754, this text assembles data from over 500 parishes across the country, providing a detailed reconstruction of the lives and marital histories of the women and men who had children, both inside and outside marriage. A regional perspective is explored, providing evidence of a clear cleavage in the texture of courtship in England during this period. The survey shows the concept of national demographic data, often the basis of past research, to be deeply flawed. Offering a fresh look at contemporary attitudes towards marriage, the research is synthesized with original material from the ecclesiastical courts, in order to illustrate hitherto unsuspected regional contrasts in courtship behaviour in this period.

Philippe Ari s and the Politics of French Cultural History

Author: Patrick H. Hutton
Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press
ISBN: 9781558494633
Format: PDF, ePub
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The author of Centuries of Childhood and other landmark historical works, Philippe Ariès (1914-1984) was a singular figure in French intellectual life. He was both a political reactionary and a path-breaking scholar, a sectarian royalist who supported the Vichy regime and a founder of the new cultural history--popularly known as l'histoire des mentalités--that developed in the decades following World War II. In this book, Patrick H. Hutton explores the relationship between Ariès's life and thought and evaluates his contribution to modern historiography, in France and abroad. According to Hutton, the originality of Ariès's work and the power of his appeal derived from the way he drew together the two strands of his own intellectual life: his enduring ties to the old cultural order valued by the right-wing Action Française, and a newfound appreciation for the methodology of the leftist Annales school of historians. A demographer by training, he pioneered a new route into the history of private life that eventually won him a wide readership and in late life an appointment to the faculty of the prestigious École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. At the same time, he fashioned himself as a man of letters in the intellectual tradition of the Action Française and became a perspicacious journalist as well as a stimulating writer of autobiographical memoirs. In Hutton's view, this helps explain why, more than any other historian, Philippe Ariès left his personal signature on his scholarship.

The Holy Household

Author: Lyndal Roper
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198202806
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is a fascinating study of the impact of the Reformation idea of `civic righteousness' on the position of women in Augsburg. Lyndal Roper argues that its development, both as a religious credo and as a social movement, must be understood in terms of gender. Until now the effects of the Reformation on women have been regarded as largely beneficial: this book argues that such a view of the Reformation's legacy is a profound misreading, and that the status of women was, in fact, worsened. The Holy Household is the first scholarly account of how the Reformation affected half of society. It greatly advances our understanding of the Reformation, of feminist history, and of the place of women in European society.