Words and Worlds

Author: Lieven Verschaffel
Publisher: Sense Publishers
ISBN: 9789087909376
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In this book, the reader is invited to enter a strange world in which you can tell the age of the captain by counting the animals on his ship, where runners do not get tired, and where water gets hotter when you add it to other water. It is the world of a curious genre, known as "word problems" or "story problems." It originated in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China, and India, and is the subject of daily rituals among students and teachers in mathematics classrooms all around the world. An international group of scholars with a shared interest in this phenomenon explore multiple aspects of this world from multiple perspectives. These discussions take us deep into philosophical issues of the relationships between words, mathematical systems, and the physical and social worlds we all inhabit. Empirical investigations are reported that throw light on how students and their teachers experience and interpret this activity, raising profound questions about the nature and purposes of mathematics teaching/learning in general and how it could be improved.

From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education

Author: Birgit Pepin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319068083
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book connects seminal work in affect research and moves forward to provide a developing perspective on affect as the “decisive variable” of the mathematics classroom. In particular, the book contributes and investigates new conceptual frameworks and new methodological ‘tools’ in affect research and introduces the new field of ‘collectives’ to explore affect systems in diverse settings. Investigated by internationally renowned scholars, the book is build up in three dimensions. The first part of the book provides an overview of selected theoretical frames - theoretical lenses - to study the mosaic of relationships and interactions in the field of affect. In the second part the theory is enriched by empirical research studies and provides relevant findings in terms of developing deeper understandings of individuals’ and collectives’ affective systems in mathematics education. Here pupil and teacher beliefs and affect systems are examined more closely. The final part investigates the methodological tools used and needed in affect research. How can the different methodological designs contribute data which help us to develop better understandings of teachers’ and pupils’ affect systems for teaching and learning mathematics and in which ways are knowledge and affect related?

Middle Grades Research Journal Issue

Author: Larry G. Daniel
Publisher: IAP
ISBN: 1641132418
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Middle Grades Research Journal (MGRJ) is a refereed, peer reviewed journal that publishes original studies providing both empirical and theoretical frameworks that focus on middle grades education. A variety of articles are published quarterly in March, June, September, and December of each volume year.

Topics and Trends in Current Statistics Education Research

Author: Gail Burrill
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030034720
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book focuses on international research in statistics education, providing a solid understanding of the challenges in learning statistics. It presents the teaching and learning of statistics in various contexts, including designed settings for young children, students in formal schooling, tertiary level students, and teacher professional development. The book describes research on what to teach and platforms for delivering content (curriculum), strategies on how to teach for deep understanding, and includes several chapters on developing conceptual understanding (pedagogy and technology), teacher knowledge and beliefs, and the challenges teachers and students face when they solve statistical problems (reasoning and thinking). This new research in the field offers critical insights for college instructors, classroom teachers, curriculum designers, researchers in mathematics and statistics education as well as policy makers and newcomers to the field of statistics education. Statistics has become one of the key areas of study in the modern world of information and big data. The dramatic increase in demand for learning statistics in all disciplines is accompanied by tremendous growth in research in statistics education. Increasingly, countries are teaching more quantitative reasoning and statistics at lower and lower grade levels within mathematics, science and across many content areas. Research has revealed the many challenges in helping learners develop statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking, and new curricula and technology tools show promise in facilitating the achievement of these desired outcomes.

Consciousness and Robot Sentience

Author: Pentti O Haikonen
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814407178
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Robots are becoming more human, but could they also become sentient and have human-like consciousness? What is consciousness, exactly? It is a fact that our thoughts and consciousness are based on the neural activity of the brain. It is also a fact that we do not perceive our brain activity as it really is — patterns of neural firings. Instead, we perceive our sensations and thoughts apparently as they are. What kind of condition would transform the neural activity into this kind of internal appearance? This is the basic problem of consciousness. The author proposes an explanation that also provides preconditions for true conscious cognition — the requirement of a direct perceptive system with inherent sub-symbolic and symbolic information processing. Associative neural information processing with distributed signal representations is introduced as a method that satisfies these requirements. Conscious robot cognition also calls for information integration and sensorimotor integration. This requirement is satisfied by the Haikonen Cognitive Architecture (HCA). This book demystifies both the enigmatic philosophical issues of consciousness and the practical engineering issues of conscious robots by presenting them in an easy-to-understand manner for the benefit of students, researchers, philosophers and engineers in the field. Contents: IntroductionThe Problem of ConsciousnessConsciousness and Subjective ExperiencePerception and QualiaFrom Perception to ConsciousnessEmotions and ConsciousnessInner Speech and ConsciousnessQualia and Machine ConsciousnessTesting ConsciousnessArtificial Conscious CognitionAssociative Information ProcessingNeural Realization of Associative ProcessingDesigning a Cognitive Perception SystemExamples of Perception/Response Feedback LoopsThe Transition to Symbolic ProcessingInformation Integration with Multiple ModulesEmotional Significance of PerceptsThe Outline of the Haikonen Cognitive Architecture (HCA)Mind Reading ApplicationsThe Comparison of Some Cognitive ArchitecturesExample: An Experimental Robot with the HCAConcluding Notes Readership: Enthusiasts in cognitive robot research (including not only experts but also hobbyists), as well as university students, researchers and engineers on robots and/or cognitive machines. Keywords:Artificial Intelligence;Consciousness;Machine Consciousness;RobotsKey Features:Explains consciousness and delves into the treatment of qualia in philosophy and practical conscious robotsPresents an architecture for conscious robotsPresents a simple cognitive robot as an illustrative example

Symbolizing Modeling and Tool Use in Mathematics Education

Author: K.P Gravemeijer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402010323
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explores the option of building on symbolizing, modeling and tool use as personally meaningful activities of students. It discusses the dimension of setting: varying from the study of informal, spontaneous activity of students, to an explicit focus on instructional design, and goals and effects of instruction; and the dimension of the theoretical framework of the researcher: varying from constructivism, to activity theory, cognitive psychology and instructional-design theory.