Working with Dynamic Crop Models

Author: Daniel Wallach
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128117575
Format: PDF
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Working with Dynamic Crop Models: Methods, Tools and Examples for Agriculture and Environment, 3e, is a complete guide to working with dynamic system models, with emphasis on models in agronomy and environmental science. The introductory section presents the foundational information for the book including the basics of system models, simulation, the R programming language, and the statistical notions necessary for working with system models. The most important methods of working with dynamic system models, namely uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, model calibration (frequentist and Bayesian), model evaluation, and data assimilation are all treated in detail, in individual chapters. New chapters cover the use of multi-model ensembles, the creation of metamodels that emulate the more complex dynamic system models, the combination of genetic and environmental information in gene-based crop models, and the use of dynamic system models to aid in sampling. The book emphasizes both understanding and practical implementation of the methods that are covered. Each chapter simply and clearly explains the underlying principles and assumptions of each method that is presented, with numerous examples and illustrations. R code for applying the methods is given throughout. This code is designed so that it can be adapted relatively easily to new problems. An expanded introductory section presents the basics of dynamic system modeling, with numerous examples from multiple fields, plus chapters on numerical simulation, statistics for modelers, and the R language. Covers in detail the basic methods: uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, model calibration (both frequentist and Bayesian), model evaluation, and data assimilation. Every method chapter has numerous examples of applications based on real problems, as well as detailed instructions for applying the methods to new problems using R. Each chapter has multiple exercises for self-testing or for classroom use. An R package with much of the code from the book can be freely downloaded from the CRAN package repository.

Working with Dynamic Crop Models

Author: Francois Brun
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080461939
Format: PDF, ePub
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Mathematical models are being used more and more widely to study complex dynamic systems (global weather, ecological systems, hydrological systems, nuclear reactors etc. including the specific subject of this book, crop-soil systems). The models are important aids in understanding, predicting and managing these systems. Such models are complex and imperfect. One fundamental research direction is to seek a better understanding of how these systems function, and to propose mathematical expressions embodying that understanding. However, this is not sufficient. It is also essential to have tools (often mathematical and statistical methods) to aid in developing, improving and using the models built from those equations. The book is specifically concerned with the application of methods to crop models, but much of the material is also applicable to dynamic system models in other fields. The goal of this book is to fill that gap. * State-of-the-art methods explained simply and illustrated specifically for crop models * Parameter estimation – applying statistical methods to the complex case of crop models, including Bayesian methods * Includes model evaluation, understanding and estimating prediction error * Offers a unique data assimilation by using the Kalman filter and beyond

Introduction to Mathematical Modeling of Crop Growth

Author: Christopher B. S. Teh
Publisher: Dissertation.com
ISBN: 1581129998
Format: PDF
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Learning mathematical modeling need not be difficult. Unlike other books, this book not only lists the equations one-by-one, but explains in detail how they are each derived, used, and finally assembled into a computer program for model simulations. This book shows how mathematics is applied in agriculture, in particular to modeling the growth and yield of a generic crop. Topics covered are agriculture meteorology, solar radiation interception and absorption, evapotranspiration, energy and soil water balance, soil water flow, photosynthesis, respiration, and crop growth development. Rather than covering many modeling approaches but in superficial detail, this book selects one or two widely-used modeling approaches and discusses about them in depth. Principles learned from this book equips readers when they encounter other modeling approaches or when they develop their own crop models.

Farm Level Microsimulation Modelling

Author: Cathal O'Donoghue
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331963979X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book, which is the first to be published in the emerging field of farm-level microsimulation, highlights the different methodological components of microsimulation modelling: hypothetical, static, dynamic, behavioural, spatial and macro–micro. The author applies various microsimulation-based methodological tools to farms in a consistent manner and, supported by a set of Stata codes, undertakes analysis of a wide range of farming systems from OECD countries. To these case studies, O’Donoghue incorporates farming policies such as CAP income support payments, agri-environmental schemes, forestry planting incentives and biomass incentives – in doing so, he illuminates the merits of microsimulation in this environment.

Agricultural Risk Transfer

Author: Roman Hohl
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 1119345634
Format: PDF, Docs
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Gain a holistic view of agricultural (re)insurance and capital market risk transfer Increasing agricultural production and food security remain key challenges for mankind. In order to meet global food demand, the Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates that production has to increase by 50% by 2050 and requires large investments. Agricultural insurance and financial instruments have been an integral part to advancing productivity and are becoming more important in increasingly globalized and specialized agricultural supply chains in the wake of potentially more frequent and severe natural disasters in today’s key producing markets. Underwriting, pricing and transferring agricultural risks is complex and requires a solid understanding of the production system, exposure, perils and the most suitable products, which vastly differ among developed and developing markets. In the last decade, new insurance schemes in emerging agricultural markets have greatly contributed to the large growth of the industry from a premium volume of US$10.1 billion (2006) to US$30.7 billion (2017). This growth is bound to continue as insurance penetration and exposure increase and new schemes are being developed. Agricultural (re)insurance has become a cornerstone of sovereign disaster risk financing frameworks. Agricultural Risk Transfer introduces the main concepts of agricultural (re)insurance and capital market risk transfer that are discussed through industry case studies. It also discusses best industry practices for all main insurance products for crop, livestock, aquaculture and forestry risks including risk assessment, underwriting, pricing, modelling and loss adjustment. Describes agricultural production risks and risk management approaches Covers risk transfer of production and financial risks through insurance and financial instruments Introduces modelling concepts for the main perils and key data sources that support risk transfer through indemnity- and index-based products Describes risk pricing and underwriting approaches for crop, livestock, aquaculture and forestry exposure in developed and developing agricultural systems Become familiar with risk transfer concepts to reinsurance and capital markets Get to know the current market landscape and main risk transfer products for individual producers, agribusinesses and governments through theory and comprehensive industry case studies Through Agricultural Risk Transfer, you’ll gain a holistic view of agricultural (re)insurance and capital market solutions which will support better underwriting, more structured product development and improved risk transfer.

Using R for Digital Soil Mapping

Author: Brendan P. Malone
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319443275
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book describes and provides many detailed examples of implementing Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) using R. The work adheres to Digital Soil Mapping theory, and presents a strong focus on how to apply it. DSM exercises are also included and cover procedures for handling and manipulating soil and spatial data in R. The book also introduces the basic concepts and practices for building spatial soil prediction functions, and then ultimately producing digital soil maps.

Climate Smart Agriculture

Author: Leslie Lipper
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319611941
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license. The book uses an economic lens to identify the main features of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation. Drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional, and resource economics, this book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of CSA. Focusing on the adaptation/resilience dimension of CSA, the text embraces a mixture of conceptual analyses, including theory, empirical and policy analysis, and case studies, to look at adaptation and resilience through three possible avenues: ex-ante reduction of vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity, and ex-post risk coping. The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides conceptual framing, giving an overview of the CSA concept and grounding it in core economic principles. The second section is devoted to a set of case studies illustrating the economic basis of CSA in terms of reducing vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity and ex-post risk coping. The final section addresses policy issues related to climate change. Providing information on this new and important field in an approachable way, this book helps make sense of CSA and fills intellectual and policy gaps by defining the concept and placing it within an economic decision-making framework. This book will be of interest to agricultural, environmental, and natural resource economists, development economists, and scholars of development studies, climate change, and agriculture. It will also appeal to policy-makers, development practitioners, and members of governmental and non-governmental organizations interested in agriculture, food security and climate change.

Agricultural Systems Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development

Author: Sieglinde Snapp
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128020954
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Agricultural Systems, Second Edition, is a comprehensive text for developing sustainable farming systems. It presents a synthetic overview of the emerging area of agroecology applications to transforming farming systems and supporting rural innovation, with particular emphasis on how research can be harnessed for sustainable agriculture. The inclusion of research theory and examples using the principles of cropping system design allows students to gain a unique understanding of the technical, biological, ecological, economic and sociological aspects of farming systems science for rural livelihoods. This book explores topics such as: re-inventing farming systems; principles and practice of agroecology; agricultural change and low-input technology; ecologically-based nutrient management; participatory breeding for developing improved and relevant crops; participatory livestock research for development; gender and agrarian inequality at the local scale; the nature of agricultural innovation; and outreach to support rural innovation. The extensive coverage of subjects is complemented with integrated references and a companion website, making this book essential reading for courses in international agricultural systems and management, sustainable agricultural management, and cropping systems. This book will be a valuable resource for students of agricultural science, environmental engineering, and rural planning; researchers and scientists in agricultural development agencies; and practitioners of agricultural development in government extension programs, development agencies, and NGOs. Provides students with an enhanced understanding of how research can be harnessed for sustainable agriculture Incorporates social, biological, chemical, and geographical aspects important to agroecology Addresses social and development issues related to farming systems

Response of Crops to Limited Water

Author: Lajpat Ahuja
Publisher: ASA-CSSA-SSSA
ISBN: 9780891181675
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The first in the groundbreaking Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling series, Response of Crops to Limited Water: Understanding and Modeling Water Stress Effects on Plant Growth Processes compiles the work of world experts, systematically presenting recent knowledge of water stress effects, and emphasizing the knowledge synthesis that will move agriculture forward. Agriculture today requires a whole-system quantitative approach, and farmers need simple management tools derived from robust models. Learn how modeling is addressing crop management in the face of competing water demands, depleted aquifers, drought, and changing plant water requirements due to global warming. Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling Transdisciplinary Research, Synthesis, and Applications Laj Ahuja, Series Editor The American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America are taking a leadership role with the initiation of this new series.The series will -Advance critical transdisciplinary research, and its synthesis and quantification -Encourage collaboration among top researchers -Promote the application of models to solve practical problems -Achieve better instruction in models and their applications